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Author(s): Lorenzo Monasta, DSc; Anna Erenbourg, MD; Stefano Restaino, MD; Vittoria Lutje, PhD; Luca Ronfani, PhD

The aim of our review was to analyze published evidence on the health conditions of Roma and Sinti people living in Italy. 

Risk factors of preterm birth and low birth weight babies among Roma and non-Roma mothers: a population-based study
Author(s): Balázs P, Rákóczi I, Grenzer A, Foley L K

Background: In 2009, 8.4% of live births in Hungary were low birth weight (LBW) and 8.7% were preterm (PTB). Roma are disproportionately represented in Northern Hungary where LBW and PTB are highest in the country (10.3% equally). This study evaluates the risk factors for LBW and/or PTB among the Roma and non-Roma populations in two Northern Hungarian counties. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 5469 non-Roma and 2287 Roma mothers who gave birth in 2009. Women were visited by the Maternal and Child Health Service nurses and completed in-person structured surveys on demographic, socio-economic, cultural and lifestyle factors. These data were combined with biometric data from hospital records. Bivariate statistics and a logistic regression analyses were used to determine risk factors for LBW and PTB. Results: Roma had a higher incidence of PTB and LBW babies compared with non-Roma women (PTB 9.9% vs. 7.1%, LBW 12.2% vs. 6.5% P = 0.001). However, ethnicity was not related to PTB and LBW in multivariable analyses, when controlling for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Factors associated with LBW and PTB include being underweight, advanced maternal age, and smoking. Conclusion: Strategies that ensure healthy lifestyles must be well integrated in family-based interventions and in the schools, with special consideration for Roma women who have a higher prevalence of deleterious lifestyles and poor birth outcomes. Ensuring a healthy body weight and no smoking has important implications for the mother and foetus.

Roma colonies in Hungary--medical care of children and hygienic conditions
Author(s): Ungváry G, Odor A, Bényi M ,Balogh S, Szakmáry E.

The hygienic conditions and the public health safety of the Hungarian Roma living in colonies are poorly known, the health care of Romany children is often subject to criticism.

Sense of coherence and self-reported health among Roma people in Sweden – a pilot study
Author(s): Sven Hassler,Leena Eklund

The Roma people have been known in Europe for a 1000 years, during which they have usually been the subject of discrimination and oppression leading to isolation, powerlessness and poor health. The objective of this study is to investigate the sense of coherence (SOC) in relation to self-reported health among a group of Roma people in southwest Sweden.

Short life expectancy and metabolic syndrome in Romanies (gypsies) in Slovakia.
Author(s): Simko V, Ginter E

The aim of this review is to explain short life expectancy in Romanies. Romanies represent the second largest minority in Slovakia (about 7%). Most of them exist on the fringes of the majority society.

Social, Economic and Reproductive Risk Factors for the Development of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia in the Roma Population in Macedonia
Author(s): D Tanturovski, E Zafirova, S Skenderovska

The objective of this study is to evaluate the social, economic and reproductive risk factors for the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in the Roma population in the Republic of Macedonia.

Socio-economic inequalities in all-cause mortality in Europe: an exploration of the role of heightened social mobility
Author(s): Audrey M. W. Simons, Daniëlle A. I. Groffen, Hans Bosma

The larger than expected socio-economic inequalities in health in more egalitarian countries might be explained by a heightened social mobility in these countries. Therefore, the aim of this explorative study was to examine the associations between country-level social mobility, income inequality and socio-economic differences in all-cause mortality, using country-level secondary data from 12 European countries. Both income equality and social mobility were found to be associated with larger socio-economic differences in mortality, particularly in women. These findings suggest that social mobility and income equality, beside their shiny side of improving population health, might have a shady side of increasing socio-economic health inequalities.

Socioeconomic position, gender, and inequalities in self-rated health between Roma and non-Roma in Serbia.
Author(s): Janevic T, Jankovic J, Bradley E.

Roma experience high levels of discrimination and social exclusion. Our objective was to examine differences in self-rated health(SRH) between Roma and non-Roma in Serbia.

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